In 2019 I found myself helping out with the music at the lovely early nineteenth-century church of St Clement King Square in Islington (London) where – following rebuilding work in the 1950s – a second-hand organ was installed, taken from the newly redundant church of St Thomas Agar Town, near Kings Cross (London). Here is a little post about Agar Town and its church, all now long vanished.
In 1816 William Agar (1767-1838), a lawyer from Lincoln’s Inn, acquired from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners a 21-year lease on land south of present-day Agar Grove and built there a mansion for himself; Elm Lodge. Extensions were applied to the lease in 1822 and again in 1839 (following Agar’s death) on behalf of his son, also named William (1814–1907).
Agar’s son began to issue his own 21-year building leases on small strips of his land and thus developed the neighbourhood known as Agar Town, a shanty of hastily built housing and workshops. While Agar Town survived little more than 21 years, its reputation as a noted place of urban poverty remains.
Time was when the wealthy owner of a large estate had lived here in his mansion; but after his departure the place became a very ’abomination of desolation’ […] a dreary and unsavoury locality, abandoned to mountains of refuse from the metropolitan dust-bins, strewn with decaying vegetables and foul-smelling fragments of what once had been fish, or occupied by knackers’-yards and manure-making, bone-boiling, and soap-manufacturing works, and smoke-belching potteries and brick-kilns. At the broken doors of multilated houses canaries still sang, and dogs lay basking in the sun […] and from these dwellings came out wretched creatures in rags and dirt, and searched amid the far-extending refuse for the filthy treasure by the aid of which they eked out a miserable livelihood; whilst over the whole neighbourhood the gas-works poured forth their mephitic vapours, and the canal gave forth […] upon the surface of the water […] a thick scum of various and ominous hues. Such was Agar Town before the Midland Railway came into the midst of it.”
A report in 1847 stated that about 5,000 people lived in Agar Town. There was no provision for sewerage or running water, and no proper roads. With no school, church or chapel to serve the area – other than the Old Saint Pancras church, which was in the process of being restored – a temporary iron church was therefore erected in Agar Town, together with a Ragged School.
As the Agar’s – and their tenants’ – various 21-year leases expired or were abandoned the Church Commissioners steadily took back ownership of the site and began planning improvements. In 1860 construction began on the first permanent church on Elm Road in Agar Town (to be dedicated to St Thomas) and a school, both designed by S. S. Teulon (1812–73). However, within just a couple of years the Commissioners sold almost all of its Agar Town land to the Midland Railway “for a considerable sum” to accommodate the Midland Railway’s rapidly expanding infrastructure associated with the new St Pancras station. Within just two months of the sale Agar Town was cleared – including its incomplete church and school site – all to be replaced with railway sidings; and the remaining Agar Town inhabitants moved to neighbouring districts like Kentish Town.
The second church: Elm Road/Wrotham Road
The Church Commissioners used some of the money it earned from selling most of its Agar Town land to create on the remainder some new streets of substantial middle-class housing and to build another church of St Thomas – also by Teulon – at the junction of Elm Road and Wrotham Road, 1863-4. This church – damaged by aerial bombing in the Second World War – was demolished after 1953, the parish being absorbed into St Michael’s Camden Town. However, the church’s organ survived, being rebuilt at St Clement King Square, London EC1.
It is somewhat ironic that the railway infrastructure that swept away Agar Town has itself now been swept away to be replaced by housing, and (high-tech) workplaces. Plus ça change … …
The pipe organ
The first organ in the church was a loan instrument by the firm of Gray and Davison (NPOR; DBOB). in 1868 a permanent instrument was provided by the firm of T. C. Lewis (Musical Standard, 28 March, 1868).
The third organ in St Thomas Wrotham Road was installed in 1875 by the local firm of Henry Willis; a two-manual mechanical-action, hand-blown instrument located in the south cnacel aisle (NPOR). It remained unaltered throughout its life there. (Morrell). At the demolition of the church the organ was moved to St Clement, King Square and rebuilt there.
- Agar Town: Life and Death of a Victorian Slum. Steven Denford. (London: Camden History Society, 1995).
- ‘Agar Town‘. The Underground Map. Onlune resource, accessed 6 Janiary 2020.
- ‘Agar Town‘. Wikipedia. Online resource accessed 6 January 2020
- ‘Agar Town, Camden’. Hidden London. Online resource accessed 6 January 2020.
- ‘Database of Organ Builders’ (DBOB). National Pipe Organ Register (NPOR). Online resource, accessed 14 January 2020.
- ‘From Cripplegate to Agar Town: London’s vanished neighbourhoods‘. Tom Bolton. The Guardian (
- Mapping Poverty in Agar Town: Economic Conditions Prior to the. Development of St. Pancras Station in 1866. (Series: ‘Working Papers on The Nature of Evidence: How Well Do ‘Facts’ Travel?’ No. 09/06) Steven P. Swensen (2006). LSE-eprints. Online resource, accessed 7 January 2020.
- ‘The Parish of St Pancras: additional churches‘. Survey of London: King’s Cross Neighbourhood. Ed. Walter H Godfrey and W McB. Marcham (London: London County Council , 1952). Online Resourc.e British History Online. Online resource, accessed 6 January 2020.
- Railways and the Western European Capitals: Studies of Implantation in London, Paris, Berlin, and Brussels. M. Nilsen (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008). Google Books. Online resource, accessed 7 January 2020.
- ‘St Thomas, Agar Town‘. National Pipe Organ Register (NPOR). Online resource, accessed 14 January 2020.
- “The story of Agar Town : the ecclesiastical parish of St. Thomas’, Camden Town” R. Conyers Morrell, (London: the author, 1935)
- ‘William Agar‘. Camden New Town History Wiki. Online resource, acccessed 7 January 2020.
The fine-looking early c19 Anglican church of St Clement King Square is little known, though quite unjustly so. Admittedly it is barely visible to most passers by, being tucked away along a cobbled cul-de-sac beside a small, quiet urban park (King Square) and overwhelmed by later c20 housing developments.
The church building – originally dedicated to St Barnabas – was designed by Thomas Hardwick (1752–1829) and competed in 1826 at a cost of around £17,000. Hardwick’s design was part of a middle-class garden-square housing development built on land owned by St Bartholomew’s Hospital, and was intended as a chapel-of-ease to St Luke’s Old Street.
This article’s rather oblique title derives from the fact that tn the late 1930’s the church was designated for closure in favour of other nearby church buildings, specifically:
- St Clement, Lever Street (1863–5; arch. George Gilbert Scott, 1811–78)
- St Matthew, City Road (1847–8; arch. George Gilbert Scott. Additions 1866: arch. G. E. Street, 1824–81)
- St Paul, Pear Tree [Peartree] Street (1868; arch, Ewan Christian, (1814–95).
However, as a result of aerial bombing during the Second World War those churches were damaged beyond repair and were closed. St Barnabas, itself bombed – but not irreparably – was retained and renovated by the Norman Haines Design Partnership to create a fine neo-classical interior. It was re-dedicated on 12 June 1954 as the church for a newly created parish of St Clement with St Barnabas and St Matthew Finsbury. The people here are very warm and welcoming, and the building is also well used for concerts of music, not least by musicians from the nearby City University.
The pipe organ
The first organ in this building was by the firm of William Hill and Sons, but was lost when the church suffered war damage. The rather nice two-manual organ we find today is derived from the mechanical-action organ by Henry Willis that was originally installed (1876) in St Thomas, Agar Town (1860-61; arch: S. S. Teulon, 1812–73) . That church was closed and demolished in the early 1950s at which point the Willis instrument there was salvaged by the firm of Mander and Sons for re-use, some of it here. The case, console and electro-action are new.
- ‘Church of St Clement with St Barnabas and St Matthew, King Square EC1 – Islington‘. Historic England. Web resource, accessed 1 December 2019.’
- ‘Middlesex Finsbury, St. Clement w St. Barnabas & St. Matthew, King Square [N17552]‘, National Pipe Organ Register. Online resource, accessed 1 December 2019
- Sit George Gilbert Scott (1811–78). Online resource, accessed 1 December 2019
- St Clement’s Finsbury. Parish website. Online resource, accessed 1 December 2019
- ‘St Clement’s Church, King Square‘. Wikipedia. Onoline resource accessed 1 December 2019
- ‘St Clement with St Barnabas King Square‘. The Church of England: A Church Near You. Online resource accessed 1 December 2019
- ‘St Matthew City Road” in T. E. Bumpus, London Churches Ancient and Modern. 2nd series/ (London: Werner Lauries, 1908). 164-5.
- St Paul Pear Treet Street in ‘Great Sutton Street Area‘. Survey of London: Volume 46, South and East Clerkenwell. (2008) 280-93. British History Online, online resource accessed 1 December 2019
- ‘St Thomas, Elm Road, Agar Town‘. The National Pipe Organ Register. Online resource, accessed 1 Decemner 2019.
- ‘Thomas Hardwick‘. Wikipedia. Online resource, accessed 1 December 2019
Having previously written about the Shrine of Our Lady of Willesden and its connection with Sir Thomas More and his family, I was very happy recently to have the opportunity to visit Chelsea (where More lived at the end of his life) to play for a Sunday mass at the church which – since his canonisation in 1935 – bears More’s name.
The site in Upper Cheyne Walk was formerly occupied by Orange House, one of a terrace of eleven houses (c.1710), of which the other ten remain. Orange House was the location (1876–82) of workshops belonging to the well-known ‘Arts and Crafts’ potter and ceramic artist William de Morgan (1839–1917). The present building was consecrated in 1905, built to the Renaissance-style design of Edward Goldie (1856–1921).
At the west end of the church is an organ gallery and pipe organ that replaces an earlier instrument destroyed by aerial bombing during the Second World War. The present instrument was made by G. M. Holditch (1816–96) for a church in High Wycombe. It was described there as having an “elegant case of ebonised wood, generously gilded on moulding and ornamentation.” (NPOR). Since then that case has largely been lost and the instrument been much adapted by unknown hands. Although now rather unattractive in appearance this instrument is nonetheless well suited to congregational accompaniment.
- ‘Chelsea‘. A History of the County of Middlesex, Volume 12 (British History Online). Online resource accessed 28 November 2019
- ‘Edward Goldie‘, Wikipedia. Online resource, accessed 28 November 2019
- ‘Middlesex Chelsea, Our Most Holy Redeemer & St. Thomas More, 7 Cheyne Row [D02903]‘. National Pipe Organ Register. Online resource, accessed 28 November 2019
- ‘RC Church of Our Most Holy Redeemer & St Thomas More, parish website, accessed 28 Novermber 2019
- ‘Thomas More‘, Wikipedia. Online resource, accessed 28 November 2019
- ‘William de Morgan‘, Wikipedia. Online resource, accessed 28 November 2019
The present church of St. Thomas with St. Andrew and St. Philip Kensal Town (London, W10, UK) replaces an earlier building and was opened in 1967; built to the design of Romilly E. Craze (1892-1974).
The former church here was opened in 1889, built to the designs of Demaine and Brierley of York, J. Demaine being described as ‘Diocesan Surveyor’. The building was demolished following aerial bombing during the Second World War. It has not been possible to locate any pre-war images of the interior of this building.
The pipe organ
The pipe organ in the 1889 building was lost to war damage; details of that instrument are given in the National Pipe Organ Register. The present west-gallery instrument is a second-hand 1-manual organ by Bevington and Sons of Rose Street, Soho, London. This address. and the builder’s plate would give the organ a date between 1867 and 1896.
While the previous location of this instrument is unknown, its recent history can be traced in the PCC minute books as follows:
- PCC Minutes 21.9.1965. “Organ & Choir. It would be possible and most Desirable. to site Both of choir & organ at West End When type of organ has been decided upon and the Organ Builder so that they can consult with Mr Craze” [Romilly E. Craze was the new building’s architect].
- PCC Minutes 20.10.1965. ”Makers of Compton Organ inform us that if we PURCHASE our organ now they will Guarantee to maintain present day price.”
- PCC Minutes. 5.4.1967 “Organ. Letter from Diocesan House re organ Stating that they cannot see their way clear to supply cash for organ. Mr Craze is going to see Secondhand Organ which is for sale at £675. For the remodernising and installation of the organ final cost would be approx. £1000.”
- PCC minutes 16.4 1972 “The 16 stop American reed organ has been given to the Cecil Club.” [The Cecil Club, 1-5 Wedlake Street, was a nearby local authority facility for senior ciizens]
- ‘Cecil Residential Club for old people, Wedlake Street, Kensal Road, London‘, Royal Institute of british Architects. Online resource, accessed 7 September 2019
- ‘Middlesex Kensal Town, St. Thomas, 231 Kensal Road [N17501]‘, National Pipe Organ Register. Online resource, accessed 9 September 2019.
- Records of the parish of Saint Thomas, Kensal Road, North Kensington: PCC/Vestry/Annual church meeting minute books, April 1960-December 1978. London Metropolitan Archive: P84/TMS/025; P84/TMS/026..
- ‘Romilly E. Craze‘. Wikipedia, accessed 7 September 2019
- ‘St. Thomas with St. Andrew and St. Philip Kensal Town‘, The Church of England: A Church Near You. Online resource, accessed 7 October 2019.
‘The Church of St. Thomas, Kensal Road‘, British History Online, accessed 7 October 2019
The Anglican church of St Matthias in Stoke Newington, London (UK) is an imposing mid-c19 building located in a modest side-street of this densely populated, multicultural district of north London. The parochial area was established in 1849 and the church building was constructed 1851-53 to the designs of the architect William Butterfield (1814–1900).
From its earliest years the church of St Matthias was home to “high-church” ritual, and remains firmly rooted in the Catholic traditions of the Church of England.
The building occupies a surprisingly spacious site – not immediately obvious – comprising church halls, a post-war vicarage and recently rebuilt St Matthias primary school, all separated by well-kept tranquil grounds .
In 1954 – following substantial war-damage – a reconstruction of the church (with a new vicarage) was completed to the design of Nugent Cachemaille-Day (1896–1976). Although most of the original fittings and decorative scheme had been irretrievably lost, Cachemaille-Day’s bright, broad and lofty ‘restoration’ has a powerful numinous quality.
The pipe organ
The current four-manual and pedal pipe organ (1952) sits on a fine west gallery and is the work of Noterman & Co of London. It contains some pipework from the church’s former instrument, by Henry Willis & Co. A detailed technical description is online with the National Pipe Organ Register (see References).
W. H. Monk
The first organist at St Matthias was W.H. Monk, a pioneer in the reintroduction of plainsong to Anglican worship. He remained in this post for 37 years until his death in 1889. Shortly after arriving at St Matthias Monk was appointed (1857) the first editor of the Church of England’s ubiquitous Hymns Ancient and Modern. He also held posts at the University of London (Bedford College and King’s College) and the Royal College of Music.
Today W. H. Monk’s most-performed work is the music for the hymn Abide With Me (Eventide).
Stephen Jasper – present-day Director of Music at St Matthias Stoke Newington – plays W. H. Monk’s tune ‘Eventide’ (Abide with me).
- ‘William Butterfield‘. Wikipedia. Online resource, accessed 23 June 2019
- T. F. Bumpus. London Churches Churches Ancient and Modern (T. Laurie: London, 1908)
- ‘Nugent Cachemaille-Day‘. Wikipedia. Online resource, accessed 23 June 2019
- ‘N. F. Cachemailled-Day. A search for somwthing more’, by Anthony Hill. The Thirties Society Journal, No. 7 (1991), pp. 20-27
- St Matthias Stoke Newington, parish website. Online resource, accessed 21 June 2019
- ‘St Matthias Stoke Newington‘, A Church Near You. Online resource accessed 21 June 2019
- ‘St Matthias Stoke Newington, Wordsworth Road, Hackney’; records (1848-1993) in the London Metropolitan Archives, ref. P94/MTS
- ‘William Henry Monk‘. Wikipedia. Online resource, accessed 23 July 2019.
The Kensington Chapel – Allen Street, London W8 – was opened in 1855 to serve as a Congregationalist place of worship.
The architect was Andrew Trimen (1810–72), a favourite of the English Congregational Chapel-Building Society, and the builder was Thomas Chamberlain (n.d.). The total cost of £8,748 included the purchase of the site from the Phillimore family.
Subsequent additions included the eastern hall and meeting rooms (1856). A new school was provided to one side of the chapel 1868–9 designed by G. Gordon Stanham costing £5,000; subsequently demolished and the site redeveloped.
The chapel building was severely damaged by aerial bombing in 1940 and was not restored to use until 1958, with upgraded minister’s accommodation, halls and meeting rooms.
The present west-gallery instrument was installed in 1958, replacing an earlier instrument that was lost when the building suffered war damage. This two-manual and pedal pipe organ is by the firm of Henry Willis and bears two dates: 1868 and 1958. The earlier date suggests the organ had previously been elsewhere, currently unknown. The specification can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register (see ‘References’ below).
Previously the chapel’s organ had its pipe-organ placed at the centre of the east wall, as we see in the first pipe-organ image above. The history of this former organ is unclear, the first available evidence – dating from 1921 – notes that it was rebuilt in 1890 by the firm of Hele and Co.
- ‘Andrew Triman’ in Architects of Greater Manchester: 1800–1940. Online resource, accessed 22 July 2019
- ‘Kensington United Reformed Church‘. Church website, accessed 22 July 2019.
- John Stoughton. Congregationalism in the Court Suburb (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1883).
- ‘Churches and chapels: Non-Anglican denominations‘, in Survey of London: Volume 42, Kensington Square To Earl’s Court, ed. Hermione Hobhouse (London, 1986), pp. 386–94. British History Online. Online resource accessed 22 July 2019.
- ‘Middlesex Kensington, United Reformed Church [N01274]‘ in National Pipe Organ Register. Online resource, accessed 22 July 2019
- ‘The Phillimore estate‘, in Survey of London: Volume 37, Northern Kensington, ed. F H W Sheppard (London, 1973), pp. 58-76. British History Online [accessed 22 July 2019].