St Botolph’s Church, Aldgate High Street, London EC3N 1AB
Last Saturday, at St Botolph’s-without-Aldgate church in central London, I attended the Annual General Meeting of the Organ Club. The church building is home to what is considered to be England’s oldest parish-church pipe organ still in its original position with most of its original insides still present.
Church of St Botolph-without-Aldgate, London (1741-4), c.2015
Church of St Botolph-without-Aldgate, London (1741-4), c.2015
The church building is named after an East Anglian saint who died in 680 and it is located at the site of a former entrance gate to the City of London, the Aldgate (removed 1761). A church building here was already in existence here by 1115. It was substantially rebuilt during the sixteenth century and survived the Great Fire of London (1665).
Church of St Botolph-without-Aldgate, London (pre-1741)
The City of London’s Aldgate, c.1609
The present church building dates from 1741-45 and was built to the designs of John Dance the Elder (1695–1768) who re-aligned the building from its former east-west axis to a north-south one.
The church of St. Botolph-without-Aldgate, c.1850
Church of St Botolph-without-Aldgate, London (1741-4); interior looking west (c.2000)
The area covered by the parish of St Botolph straddles an administrative border that separates the City of London from the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.
The location of the parish of St Botolph-without-Aldgate, shown on the 1741-5 map of London by John Rocque
Present-day location of the church of St Botolph-without-Aldgate c.2017
Parish of St Botolph Aldgate, outlined in red, on the1741-5 map of London by John Rocque
From the later seventeenth century the parish came to be characterised by poverty, disease and poor housing with only a minority of wealthier inhabitants and was in receipt of substantial poor relief and a high level of charitable giving. As the City of London has developed so the resident population of the parish has dwindled significantly and now the parish is dominated by office blocks and riven by busy roads, but even so the church itself retains an air of calm within.
Church of St Botolph-without-Aldgate, London (1741-4); interior looking east (c.2000)
The keyboards of the organ in St Botolph-without-Aldgate, London, c.2010
The present-day pipe organ was first installed in the sixteenth-century building in about 1704 by the organ builder Renatus Harris (c.1652-1724). It was transferred into the replacement building in the 1740s by the organ builder John Byfield (1694-1751) and in 2005 it was faithfully restored by the firm of Goetze and Gwynn.
YouTube Video: William Boyce 'Voluntary No. 4' from Ten Voluntaries for Organ or Harpischord (London: Thompson, c.1785) performed by Robert Woolley at St Botolph's Aldgate (June 2011)
St Bartholomew the Less, West Smithfield, London EC1
The Smithfield area just beyond the north-west corner of the City of London owes much of its current street plan to the history of its medieval Augustinian priory and hospital, while the historic character of its architecture – some dating back to the Middle Ages– is due in no small part to the fact that the area narrowly escaped the Great Fire of London in 1666, and was relatively little damaged by aerial bombing during the Second World War.
London, 1666, showing the location of Smithfield adjacent to the areas destroyed by the Great Fire.
Smithfield, from ‘Civitas Londinum’ (attrib. Robert Agas c.1560-70), publ. 1633.
Smithfield, 1827, engr. John Greenwood.
The location of Smithfield in 2016.
The priory church (1123) survives today as the Anglican parish church of St Bartholomew the Great. It is an impressive edifice by any standards although only two-thirds of its former length now survives and most of its priory building have long gone, thanks to the destruction of church property wrought throughout England during the religious battles of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
St Bartholomew’s Hospital (1123) – known to most Londoners simply as Barts – was founded as an integral part of the Priory and survives on its original site, although most of its historic buldings date back only as far as the early eighteenth century.
The Great Hall at St Bartholomew’s Hospital, Smithfield, c.2000.
St Bartholomew’s Hospital;, Smithfield, the courtyard (1732-69), designed by James Gibbs (1682–1754).
Plan of St Bartholomew’s Hospital, Smithfield, 1893.
The Grand Staircase at Sr Barholomew’s Hospital, decorated 1736–7 by William Hogarth (1697–1764), c.2000.
Over many centuries Smithfield been a site of many notable gatherings, for example:
From 1123 Smithfield was the site of the annual Bartholomew Fair originally designed by the Priory to mark St Bartholomew’s Day, 24 August. The fair survived the Reformation and the Civil War and by the early 1700s lasted at least two weeks and attracted vast crowds of fun-seeking Londoners. The fair was a regular source of anxiety for various civic-minded groups concerned with public order and public morality but it was not until 1855 that the fair ceased.
In 1374 Edward III (1312–77) held a seven-day tournament at Smithfield, for the amusement of his mistress Alice Perrers (1348–1400).
On 15 June 1381 Richard III met here the the leaders of the so-called Peasants Revolt. The meeting turned violent and several of the revolutionaries were killed by the London militia, including the peasants’ spokesman, Wat Tyler
In 1390 Richard II (1367–1400) hosted a two-day tournament organised by Geoffrey Chaucer, who was then the clerk to the king. The tournament – reported across Europe – was described by Jean Froissart (c.1337–c 1405) in his Chronicles (of the Hundred Years War).
Until the late seventeenth century Smithfield was a place of public execution. In 1305 the Scottish rebel William Wallace was executed here. During the sixteenth century it was often religious dissidents who met their deaths on Smithfield, while in the seventeenth century it became a place of execution for swindlers and coin forgers.
From as early as 1132 livestock and horses were traded here every Friday, a practice that developed in into the Smithfield meat market that operates today in a splendid Victorian market-hall that covers much of the former Smithfield.
Smithfield Market buildings, late c.19.
Memorial to Sir William Wallace on the wall of St Bartholomew’s Hospital, Smithfield, near the place of his execution.
St Bartholomew Fair, 1721, design for a fan.
Death of Wat Tyler. British Library Royal MS 18.E.i-ii f. 175 (date: 1385-1400)
Richard II’s 1394 tournament at Smithfield depicted in Froissart’s ‘Chronicles’.
St Bartholomew the Less
Less well known in the story of Smithfield is the ancient church of St Bartholomew the Less (1184), located within the hospital precinct. It replaced the Chapel of the Holy Cross (1123).
St Bartholomew’s Hospital, Smithfield, c.1720, Henry VIII Gate (1703) with the church of St Bartholomew the Less behind.
Smithfield Market, mid-c.19, showing the Henry VIII Gate (1703) of St Bartholomew’s Hospital, with the church of St Bartholomew the Less behind. The dome of St Paul’s Cathedral is in the distance.
St Bartholomew’s Hospital, Smithfield, c.1890, Henry VIII Gate (1703) with the church of St Bartholomew the Less behind.
Although the ground-plan of the present church is Norman, the west-end and tower are largely 13th-century structures; two of the tower’s three bells date from 1380 and 1420. and are still hung in a medieval–period ‘bell frame’. The architect and theatre-designer Inigo Jones (1573–1652) was baptised here. His father was a Welsh clothworker living in nearby Cloth Fair.
The medieval tower of St Bartholomew the Less, Smithfield, c.2000.
The west end of St Bartholomew the Less, Smithfield.
In 1789 the nave and chancel of the church was ‘repaired’ (rebuilt) by the hospital’s surveyor and architect George Dance the younger (1741–1825). Dance chose the modern ‘gothick’ style to create a brand-new, light and airy octagon–shaped nave within the church’s medieval walls. At the same time he removed many of the old tombs and memorials.
St Bartholomew the Less, looking east, c.2015.
St Bartholomew the Less, Smithfield, looking south-west, c. 2015.
St Bartholomew the Less, roof of the octagonal nave, m c.2000.
St Bartholomew the Less, Smithfield, looking north-west, c. 2015.
The pipe organ
There have been several organs in the church supplied by various organ-builders as follows:
Richard Bridge, c.1729
John Byfield jun. with John Byfield III, 1794.
This organ was an ‘annuity organ’, which meant it was installed gratis by the organ builder but in return he provided the organist – in this case his son – and took the organist’s fee. (Organists of the City of London. Dawe: 1983. 33). As I noted in my blog of 24 September 2016, a similar annuity-organ contract was made in 1790 between William Warrell and the parish of St Mary-le-Strand.
John Gray, 1825
Gray and Davison, 1863
William Hill and Son & Norman and Beard Ltd, 1930
N. P. Mander, 1978
St Bartholomew the Less, Smithfield, organ pedalboard, c. 2016.
St Bartholomew the Less, Smithfield, organ builder’s plate, c. 2016.
St Bartholomew the Less, Smithfield, organ console, c. 2016.
Alas, no images of the earliest organs seem to have survived. The current organ’s pipework is located in somewhat cramped conditions, deep-set under a narrow arch at the west end of the church. The organ’s console is in the south-east corner. The instrument has no pretensions, being simple in looks and plain in tone; even at full-organ it does not overwhelm. However, since it speaks directly along the main axis of the church it is adequate to accompany congregational singing.